committee at the conference of European Posts and Telecommunications Administrations
(CEPT) conceived Pan-European Cellular Mobile Radio System in 1982. The committee
aimed to achieve four main goals.
Provision of cellular services, which provide more functionality than analogue
Provision of new capacity to alleviate capacity shortage in metropolitan analogue
To develop, through Pan European Co-operation, a pool of technological expertise
which would enhance Europe's ability to compete with US and Japan.
To forward the European Commission's goals of universal telecommunications standardisation
and access in Europe thus opening up markets on the scale of the US.
working party called Groupe Speciale Mobile was tasked with the development of
the standards. The standard that has emerged from this group has become widely
known as GSM. In 1989 GSM was transferred from CEPT to the European Telecommunications
Standards Institute (ETSI). CEPT however continues to provide a forum for European
Development over the years lead
to a digital system using Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). This was known
as Primary GSM (P-GSM), which was split between two operators Cellnet and Vodafone
in the UK. In response to a perceived future demand for even more capacity, P-GSM
spectrum was extended to form E-GSM. At a late stage in GSM development the existing
technology was modified to meet the need for PCN networks. This is known as DCS
1800 and is mainly used by One2One and Orange in the UK. The DTI agreed to release
more spectrum in the DCS 1800 range for dual-band operation in the UK. This allowed
GSM 900 operators such as Cellnet and Vodafone to establish a system using both
900Mhz and 1800Mhz frequencies. This brought major advantages by offering additional
network capacity, but required dual band handsets. However the DTI also increased
spectrum available in the UK for the two DCS 1800 operators One2One and Orange.
Message Service (SMS)
is available in all of the digital systems such as GSM, GPRS, EDGE and UMTS. It
is one of the early packet data type for transport of short text messages from
the mobile to the network, and from the network to the mobile. The traditional
SMS also includes Cell Broadcast, which is the ability for the network to transmit
information to the mobile. SMS can also be used as a general-purpose bearer such
as the WAP protocol. It is also integrated into larger value added services such
as integrated messaging services, e-mail delivery and notification, and status
Application Protocol (WAP)
is a collection of protocols and transport layers that allow mobile and portable
communication devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDA's) to receive information
over the airwaves similar to computer users obtaining information over the Internet.
SMS data messages can be incorporated into WAP to provide different services.
Also General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) can provide an ideal mechanism for WAP
services. Current WAP mobile services are slow and restricted due to capacity
limitations. Hence the success of WAP in mobile communication will depend on how
it can be adapted to serve new emerging technologies.
Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) has developed GPRS technology
to make data across the GSM network, fast and more attractive. This is still a
technology under development and most of the UK operators are planning to upgrade
their networks. GPRS can be much faster than other traffic on GSM but the exact
speed a single user sees will be directly related to the total number of users
in a particular cell. However most GPRS transactions will be short hence reducing
any delays. GPRS is designed for the internet hence internet services such as
File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Web browsing, Internet chat will be possible at
very fast speeds. It will also be an ideal mechanism for WAP. The operators will
benefit from new revenue generating streams requiring short exchanges of information
like telematic type applications such as automatic tollbooths. Other uses can
be to check your bank balance or to initiate a fund transfer to pay bills. The
potential for GPRS is immense and is considered to be a step towards UMTS the
next generation of mobile technology.
Band for DCS 1800 (UK)
1710 - 1785 Mhz mobile Tx
1805 - 1880 Mhz
200Khz, 374 Carriers, 8/16 Users per carrier
95 Mhz, Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
Gausian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulation
270 Kbits/s, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Regular Pulse Excitation, Linear Predictive Coder (RPE-LPC),
13Kb/s, 6.5kb/s & 12.2Kb/s
Data Rates for Digital Evolution (EDGE)
is a new modification to GSM incorporating a change to the physical layer. The
main advantage is that it gives higher data rates up to 384 Kb/s.
is a technology specification for small form factor, low cost, short-range radio
links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices such as Personal
Digital Assistants (PDA's) etc.
Mobile Technology Second Generation TACS